Tuesday, 5 December 2017

076 - The Chenab Colony

During my childhood my favourite genre of movies was Western. These movies were simple and offered a lot of action. It was easy to understand the story of a young lady travelling on a stage coach, coming under the attack of bandits and a dashing hero coming to her help. Or a caravan of settlers coming under attack of the Red Indians and John Wayne with guns in his both hands protecting the caravan with the help of other young men. The good thing was that you did not need to know any English, all was self-explanatory. The life of frontier with all its dangers and excitement fascinated me. At that time I did not know that just a century ago, we had had our own frontier right in the middle of Punjab, the most populous province of Pakistan. And they settlers at this frontier also faced many of the problems, which were faced by many of the settlers in the new world. Like lack of communication, desolate places and even a local population, which though not openly hostile, but anyway showing displeasure and resentment against the settlers. I heard such stories in Chak 127 EB, near Arifwala, where my aunt's father in law was granted 25 acres of land sometime around 1930. 

It all started in the last decade of the 19th century. The British occupied Punjab in 1849 after defeating the Sikh State of Lahore in the second Anglo-Sikh war. It was the last major independent state of India to come under the control of the British Empire. The new authorities soon realized the potential for great development in agriculture in the new province. By 1890s the projects started in full earnest and soon millions of waste lands were brought under cultivation. 

These schemes were called Canal Colonies, and in all 9 such colonies were developed over the next few decades. An article in Wikipedia describes the government intentions in the following words:
To relieve the pressure of population upon the land in those districts of the Province where the agricultural population has already reached or is fast approaching the limit which the land available to agriculture can support and to colonise the area in question with well-to-do yeomen of the best class of agriculturists, who will cultivate their own holdings with the aid of their families and the usual menials, but as much as possible without the aid of tenants, and will constitute healthy agricultural communities of the best Punjab type,
 The government hoped to "create villages of a type superior in comfort and civilisation to anything which had previously existed in the Punjab", which in turn would increase productivity. This increased productivity would then boost revenues for the government. To finance this ambitious project, capital was raised through the sale of governmental bonds in Britain, offering investors the chance to benefit from the interest charges remitted by the provincial government. 
ColonyPeriod of colonisationDoabDistrictArea in acres
Sidhnai1886-88BariMultan250,000
Sohag Para1886-88BariMontgomery86,300
Chenab1892-1905
1926-30
RechnaGujranwala, Jhang, Lyallpur, Lahore, Sheikhupura1,824,745
Chunian1896-98
1904-05
BariLahore102,500
Jhelum1902-06JechShapur, Jhang540,000
Lower Bari Doab1914-24BariMontgomery, Multan1,192,000
Upper Chenab1915-19RechnaGujranwala, Sialkot, Sheikhupura78,800
Upper Jhelum1916-21JechGujrat42,300
Nili Bar1916-40BariMontgomery, Multan1,650,000
As the above table shows, the Chenab Colony with an area of almost 2 million acres, was the biggest of all these colonies. The following paragraph from Wikipedia gives further information about the colonization policy:
There were three types of grants in the Chenab Colony, namely peasant, yeoman and capitalist grants. Peasants had to remain as tenants of the government and could not acquire proprietary rights. This was designed to curtail the powers of alienation of peasant grantees. Yeoman and capitalist grantees were allowed to acquire proprietary rights after a five-year qualification period. Upon acquiring the grants, the yeoman and capitalist grantees were required to pay a fee to the government in lieu of the size of their holdings. Peasant and yeoman grantees were required to be resident on the land. 78.3 per cent of the total land in the colony was allotted to peasant grantees.
In identifying immigrant colonists, the government had two objectives; to provide relief from population congestion and to procure the most skilled agriculturalists. As such grantees were selected from seven districts, AmbalaLudhiana, Jullundur, Hoshiarpur, Amritsar, Gurdaspur and Sialkot. Between 1891 and 1921, the population densities in all seven districts declined, thus avoiding the potential for rural instability. These immigrant colonists were granted over 60 per cent of the allotted land in the Colony. The strict allocation of land to immigrants from just these seven districts led to criticism of neglect in the west of Punjab, and thereafter 135,000 acres of land was granted to individuals from Gujrat, Jhelum, ShahpurRawalpindi, Multan,Lahore, Ferozepur and Bannu. It was decided that peasant grantees would be hereditary and landholding agriculturists, and would be drawn from the established Jatt, Saini, Kamboh and Arain castes. The Jats formed the largest group of grantees, holding 36 per cent of the entire colony. Hindus and Muslims were each given around 31 per cent of the total allotted area. Amongst the yeoman and capitalist grants, substantial allotments went to Rajputs.
This vast agricultural settlement was given the name of Chenab Colony, because it was planned to irrigate this area, which was called Sandal Bar, in Rechna Doab, with the waters of the River Chenab. For this purpose, a canal Lower Chenab was dug, starting from Khanki Headworks and coming southwards all the way to the very heart of this bar. Its three main branches were Jhang Branch, Rakh Branch and Gugera Branch. The importance of the waters of river Chenab was recognized by erecting a monument called Gumti. I do not know why it is called Gumti or its meanings. 

Gumti. Monument of Chenab Colony, Faisalabad. (21.07.2017.)

Gumti. Monument of Chenab Colony, Faisalabad. (21.07.2017.)


برکت دریائے چنہاں دی۔ 
Blessing of the River Chenab. 


ਬਰਕਤ ਦਰਯਾ ਝਨਾਂ ਦੀ
 Blessing of the River Chenab. 

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022169414006593

Lower Chenab Canal Crossing the Qadirabad-Balloki Link Canal at Sagar Head through an aqueduct. (20.12.2016.)

Lower Chenab Canal Crossing the Qadirabad-Balloki Link Canal at Sagar Head through an aqueduct. (20.12.2016.)

Lower Chenab Canal Crossing the Qadirabad-Balloki Link Canal at Sagar Head through an aqueduct. (20.12.2016.)

Qadirbar-Balloki Link Canal at Sagar Head, 5 kms east of Hafizabad. (20.12.2016.)

While collecting material for this post, I found an excellent work done by Mr Imran Ali on the Punjab Canal Colonies. This is his thesis for the degree of  Doctor of Philosophy, he submitted to The Australian National University, Canberra in 1979. The full thesis can be found at the following link:

https://openresearch-repository.anu.edu.au/handle/1885/112646

The area was colonized during 1892 - 1905. The area of this vast colony comprised mostly of Jhang and Montgomery districts. Some portion of Gujranwala and Lahore districts were also included. In 1904 a new district was made comprising mainly the areas carved out of Jhang and Montgomery districts. Condition of this area is given in the following words by Mr Imran Ali:

It was a level, alluvial plain, virtually unbroken by ridges or natural drainages. A weir situated appropriately on the Chenab River could render vast areas commandable by canal irrigation. Just such a function was performed by the head works of the Chenab Canal at Khanke. Colonisation was facilitated by the large area that had been appropriated by the government as Crown Waste Land. Traditionally, in the Punjab land that was barren or uncultivated was normally claimed by the State as its own property. In the Rechna Doab, private ownership in land existed only in the riverain tracts, or Hithars, which contained settled agricultural communities.
The vast upland or inter-fluve, known as the Sandal Bar, was inhabited by a semi-nomadic pastoral people, who were collectively called Janglis. Since they did not actually cultivate them, the government did not recognize the claims of these people over their grazing areas as amounting to proprietary rights; but instead it asserted its own ownership over this land. It was on this Crown Waste that the canal network was constructed and colonisation took place.
The government preferred the colonization of the area with immigrant agriculturists. But it did not entirely ignore the local population and 35% of the land was eventually allocated to Hitharis, the cultivating communities along the river banks and Janglis, the semi-nomadic grazing people. 

The government professed to have two main objectives for the colonization of the Chenab Colony:

1. To relieve the pressure of population upon the land in those districts of the Province where the agricultural population has already reached or is fast approaching the limit which the land available to agriculture can support.

2. To colonize the area in question with well-to-do yeomen of the best class of agriculturists, who will cultivate their own holdings with the aid of their families and the usual menials, but as much as possible without the aid of tenants, and will constitute healthy agricultural communities of the best Punjab type. 

3. To improve stand of rural life and create a class of people, who are content with the government and loyal to it. 

The following three categories were made for the purpose of allotment of lands:

Type of the Allottee
Area Granted
Nazrana
Abadkar (Peasants)
0.5 – 2 Squares

Sufedpost (Yeoman)
2 – 5 Squares
Rs 6 Per Acre
Rais (Capitalist)
6 – 20 Squares
Rs 10 – 20 Per Acre

Nazara was the amount to be paid at the time of the transfer of proprietary rights. 

Chenab Colony – Colonisation Scheme

Chenab Colony – Colonisation Scheme
Type of Grant
Jhang Branch
Rakh Branch
Gugera Branch
Total
Acres
%
Acres
%
Acres
%
Acres
%
Peasant
500,000
91
280,000
70
544,000
77.7
1,324,000
80.2
Yeoman
25,000
4.5
60,000
15
35,000
5
120,000
7.3
Capitalist*
25,000
4.5
60,000
15
45,000
6.4
130,000
7.9
Police




6,000
0.9
6,000
0.4
Military




70,000
10
70,000
4.2
Total
550,000
100
400,000
100
700,000
100
1,650,000
100


Distribution of Land, As Finally Allotted

Branch
Peasant
Yeoman
Capitalist
Miscellaneous
Total
Acres
%
Acres
%
Acres
%
Acres
%
Acres
%
Jhang
439,431
81.2
38,461
7.1
30,580
5.7
32,626
6
541,098
100
Rakh
342,768
75
44,331
9.7
38,390
8.4
31,535
6.9
457,024
100
Gugera
542,652
77.7
58,250
8.3
50,921
7.3
46,774
6.7
698,597
100
Extensions
103,829
81.1
8,834
6.9
8,450
6.6
6,913
5.4
128,026
100
Whole Colony
1,428,680
78.3
149,879
8.2
128,341
7
117,848
6.5
1,824,745
100

The above table shows that almost 80% of the lands was allotted to the small farmers, as was originally intended. There were two categories of grantees on the basis of their origin:
A basic division existed between 'immigrant' and 'indigenous' grantees. The former received 64.6 percent and the latter 35.4 percent of total allotted area in the colony. The 'indigenous' grantees were those who belonged to Jhang, Gujranwala and Montgomery Districts, whilst the 'immigrant' grantees came from districts other than these three. In selecting the districts from which immigrant Peasant colonists were to be obtained, the government adhered to its two principal objectives for the Chenab Colony: to provide relief from population congestion and to procure the most skilled agriculturists. These requirements led it to select seven districts: Ambala, Ludhiana, Jullundur, Hoshiarpur, Amritsar, Gurdaspur and Sialkot.
As we already read that government selected allottees from districts in order to decrease the density of population in those districts, besides other consideration. The following table shows the population density of all the districts of Punjab.

Density of Population Per Square Mile in Various
Punjab Districts

District
1881
1891
1901
1911
1921
Jullundur*
552
634
641
560
574
Amritsar*
531
623
643
553
583
Ludhiana*
426
447
464
262
391
Sialkot*
524
572
555
518
522
Gurdaspur*
436
500
498
443
451
Hoshiarpur*
401
450
440
409
413
Ambala*
442
459
434
467
362
Gujranwala
251
286
320
262
270
Lahore
280
334
374
372
420
Gujrat
284
315
309
307
322
Ferozepur
174
207
223
224
256
Rawalpindi
233
264
276
271
281
Jhelum
147
152
149
184
172
Mianwali
49
63
56
63
66
Multan**
94
107
120
137
150
Shahpur**
86
107
109
144
161
Jhang**
113
117
123
152
165
Montgomery**
78
94
97
108
154
Lyallpur**
12
9
181
261
301
Sheikhupura**
136
158
203
206
247
Avg. Of Punjab
152
167
178
174
183
Avg. Of Colony Districts
148
170
204
216
243
*Selected districts for the Chenab Colony**The major canal colony districts.

Chenab Colony: Distribution of  Land to Immigrant Grantees,
by  District of Origin  

District
Acres Allotted
% of the Colony
Amritsar
251,091
13.35
Gurdaspur
152,352
8.11
Sialkot
148,727
7.92
Hoshiarpur
126,165
6.75
Jullundur
122,069
6.53
Ludhiana
106,230
5.65
Ambala
46,534
2.47
Lahore
28,396
1.51
Gujrat
15,038
0.81
Mianwali
7,206
0.38
Others
120,183
6.37
Total
1,105,878
59.85

The above map of Punjab in the 1890s, shows the location of Lyallpur district and other districts. 

All was not going smoothly and there was some discontent as well. A British officer Thornburn wrote as follows:
"The Mussalmans of the Western Punjab are very depressed, think themselves neglected, are in a dissatisfied state and have some reason for their dissatisfaction. They all produce good recruits and belong to sturdy fighting tribes. It will be good policy to offer these districts small allotments . . . . such Mussalmans - Awans excepted -would not make first class peasant colonists, and are therefore protanto objectionable. I think, however, other considerations have greater weight and should prevail . . . . Though commercial principles should perhaps govern the majority of allotments, still in a great State-scheme of colonisation allowance should be made for considerations of good policy. If care is exercised in the selections I have no doubt Mussalman tenants from the districts named will do well."Note by S.S. Thorburn, PC, 22 January 1898; in PRAP(I), April 1898, No.7.
But we also see that among the immigrant grantees Muslims and Sikhs/Hindus were allotted lands equally. See the following table:

Distribution of Lands to Immigrant Grantees, 
By Religion & Caste

Group
Hindus / Sikhs
Muslims
Total
Acres Allotted
% of Colony
Acres Allotted
% of Colony
Acres Allotted
% of Colony
Jat
445,445
23.67
230,135
12.31
675,580
35.98
Kamboh
46,176
2.45
10,555
0.56
56,731
3.01
Saini
16,236
0.87
-
-
16,236
0.87
Arain
-
-
201,162
10.70
201,162
10.70
Rajput
9,838
0.52
52,029
2.75
61,867
3.27
Pathan
-
-
26,750
1.43
26,750
1.43
Gujar
-
-
22,015
1.22
22,015
1.22
Miscellaneous
80,840
4.3
47,188
2.51
128,028
6.81
Total  
595,095
31.81
589,834
31.48
1,184,929
64.60

Mr Imran Ali has noted the impact on the local population and its reaction in the folloiwng words:
The 'indigenous' grantees, by contrast, did not fulfil either of the two objectives for the settlement of the Chenab Colony. They neither came from congested districts nor could they in the great majority of cases be regarded as skilled, seif-cultivating agriculturists. The allotment of land to them was a response to the disruption and imbalances caused by the development of canal irrigation in the lives of the pcop]c of Jhang, Gujranwala and Montgomery Districts. These 'indigenous' grantees comprised two elements: the semi-nomadic pastoralists of the Bar, who were called Janglis, and the settled agriculturists of the riverain, who were called Hitharis. These people ultimately received the very sizeable area of 663,000 acres, or 35% of total allotted land. Initially, however, the government had no plans to make such an allotment. The grants grew out of the need to compensate: the Janglis for the world they had lost; and the Hitharis for the environmental impact of canal irrigation on the riverain tracts in which their homes were situated. 
The pastoralists of the Bar were faced with a revolution in their lifestyles when their grazing areas disappeared under canal irrigation. They were pushed out of their old homes, and their land was taken up by strangers, whom they regarded as usurpers. Their loud protestations, combined with a sudden increase in crime (especially cattle theft, to which they had always been prone), as well as the all too obvious loss of their means of subsistence, forced 8 0 the government to allot land to these Janglis. Those who could produce evidence that they had paid the grazing tax, or O 1 tirni, in pre-colony days became eligible for land grants. This effectively restricted access to land to the owners of cattle, who comprised the dominant elements in Jangli society. The lower strata of the Janglis, which had traditionally been servile to the cattle-owners, had to seek a livelihood as landless labourers with their former masters or with immigrant grantees.
In the end, the Janglis received 448,000 acres, or about 24% of the total allotted area. This was a great deal of land; but even so, the Janglis retained a sense of grievance. Though their leading men received larger grants, most Janglis 8 3 were allotted land at the rate of half a square per family. This was half the size of grants to immigrants, and it allowed for little more than subsistence agriculture. With little or no previous experience in agriculture, they had suddenly to conform to the demands of the market economy. In the following years, many became successful agriculturists; but others remained the most backward of colonists, stranded on their small grants, with their cattle little more than a liability, and bewailing the days of their lost freedom.
However, the following tables show that a substantial quantity of land was distributed among the local inhabitants.

Indigenous Grantees: Distribution of Land to Janglis 

Caste
Tribe
Acres Allotted
% Of Colony
Jat and Rajput

Kharral
56,252
3
Wattu
17,813
0.95
Chadhhar
15,938
0.85
Bhatti
11,250
0.60
Khichi
11,063
0.59
Others
237,196
12.65
Baloch
Jatoi
36,189
1.93
Others
62,152
3.32

Total
447,953
23.89

Religion
Caste
Ac. Allotted
% Of Colony
Hindu / Sikh
Jat Sikh
30,001
1.6
Arora
14,626
0.78
Mazhabi
11,813
0.63
Others
11,250
0.60
Muslim
Rajput
66,377
3.54
Jat
33,001
1.76
Syed/Qureshi
38,626
2.06
Others
10,126
0.54

Total
215,820
11.51

Kaiseri Gate, Faisalabad. (21.07.2017.)

Kaiseri Gate
قیصری دروازہ

IN COMMEMORATION OF THE 60TH YEAR OF THE REIGN OF HER IMPERIAL MAJESTY QUEEN VICTORIA

لا الہ الا اللہ محمد رسول اللہ 
There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is Prophet of Allah
(Definitely a post-independence addition)

Sir James Broadwood Lyall (6 March 1838 – 4 December 1916) a senior government officer played an important role in the development of the colony and establishment of a new city as its administrative centre. Thus the new city was named Lyallpur after him. A monument was erected in his memory in the city. Which is now located in Jinnah Bagh. I was expecting some plaques at the monument and was sure to find valuable informations. But to my surprise and disappointment, there was no such plaque. However, it was clearly visible that there used to be plaques, which were removed later on. But when and why I could not find in my limited time. 

Monument of Sir James Broadwood Lyall, Faisalabad. (21.07.2017.)

Monument of Sir James Broadwood Lyall, Faisalabad. (21.07.2017.)

Monument of Sir James Broadwood Lyall, Faisalabad. (21.07.2017.)

Besides the thesis fo Dr Imran Ali, the official "Gazetteer of the Chenab Colony, 1904" was also very useful in writing this post. The gazeetteer gives the following account of the geography and population of the Chenab Colony:
The total length of the present colony is 101.5 miles, the greatest width being 56 miles, and the average width 38 miles. It begins half way between the Sukheke and Marh Railway Station on the Wazirabad – Khanewal Line, and ends just before Shorkot Road Station.

The total area is 3,855 sq. miles of which 2,817square of miles are now allotted for cultivation. Of these again 2,411 square miles, or 85% of the allotted area, were cultivated in 1902-03.

The colony was reckoned as a separate district for the purpose of census in 1901. Excluding Jhang, of which the colony forms so large a part, it then stood thirteenth in the order of area (3,706 square miles) and twelfth in the order of population (782,690) amongst the 32 districts of Punjab as then constituted.

The principal town, Lyallpur, so called after Sir James Lyall, K.C.S.A., late Lieutenant Governor of the Province is situated on the Wazirabad-Khanewal Branch of the North-Western Railway, 96 miles from Wazirabad.

Other towns on the railway, which are important as export markets, are Sangla, Chiniot Road, Gojra and Toba Tek Singh. The rest of the colony, which is divided into 1,418 estates, is almost entirely agricultural.

The average area of each village is 1731 acres or 62.5 squares, the average allotted area being 1,278 acres or 46 squares.

The colony comprises the whole or parts of the following tahsils:
District
Tahsil
No. of Estates
Area (sqm)
Allotted Area
(sqm)
Jhang
Lyallpur
333
971
756
Toba Tek Singh
353
960
630
Samundri
372
972
736
Chiniot
132
322
245
Jhnag
76
202
124
Gujranwala
Khanqah Dogran
139
403
309
Hafizabad
4
5
3
Lahore
Sharakpur
9
20
14
Total
1,418
3,855
2,817

The Gazetteer gives the following description of the bar before its development:
The bar has often been spoken of as a country of extreme desolation, and though this description may be justified by the almost entire absence of crops which could only be grown in the most favoured localities and favoured years, yet the landscape though monotonous was far from unpleasing, and after a fall of rain might almost be called beautiful. It certainly possessed a peculiar fascination of its own, to which the wilderness and the vastness of the scene doubtless contributed. Few of those who knew it in the past and felt its freedom will regard its disappearance without a sense of genuine regret, despite the enormous benefits which have accompanied the change. There was, however, one part of the Bar which natured conceived in her most unkindly mood. The tract around Toba Tek Singh was almost void of trees and grass. The clump of frashes at the dak bungalow were a perfect oasis in a hideous prairie, and Dabanwala kikar, a solitary tree about 8 miles distant from Toba Tek Singh, acquired a fame which it could not have won even on the road from Khiwa to Jhang, of which Mr Monckton (Deputy Commissioner of Jhang from 1853 – 57) wrote: “It stand probably unrivalled in the world for its combination of the most desolate features a landscape is capable of offering.”

It was natural that the earlier settlers faced a host of problems and hardships. The Gazetteer mentions the conditions of those settlers in the following words:

Further, the irrigation arrangements, as was only to be expected, were by no means perfect; The first levels taken by the Irrigation Department were not so close or so accurate as those at later stages of the scheme; and only the main watercourses were constructed -before the arrival of the settlers; Even tb1s had not always been done, and the settlers had still to make the channels, often of a very considerable length, for conveying water to their own squares. When this too bad been accomplished they might find that their squares were still unirrigable. Moreover, the rainfall iu the previous years had been very scanty and the Bar consequently presented a particularly desolate appearance. Many, therefore, refused to believe that the land was worth cultivating. Faced by these difficulties,· real or fancied, large numbers of selected settlers returned to their homes without attempting to cultivate the lands offered to them. 
Those who persevered and were not carried off by a severe epidemic of cholera were rewarded by an excellent crop, and once the virtue of the virgin soil of the Bar had been thus demonstrated, there was no lack of fresh settlers to take the place of those who fled. But the trials of early settlers were not quite at an end. Their crop matured, there was not sufficient labour available to harvest it, and large quantities of cotton were left unpicked. When harvested there was still the difficulty of disposing of the produce which bad to go the same perilous ways by which, the settlers came. It was largely for this reason that so many of the larger grantees still thought it not worth their while to take up the liberal grants then offered to them and the colony was not fully popularised with all classes until the railway was constructed as far as Lyallpur in 1896.
 Meanwhile the opposition offered by the Bar nomads at one time reached an acute phase. It had been left to the Colonization Officer to dispose of their claims, but probably it had not been realised to the full how numerous they were or how troublesome they would prove. They not only made perpetual attacks on the colonists who were for some time no match for them, but at first they also declined to "take land themselves. Their criminal ardour was cooled by vigorous repressive measures, and their disinclination to take land by the great patience and tact with which it was met. The belief that the canal had come to stay began to force itself upon them, and they found it at last advisable to
make for themselves the best terms they could. 

They were then treated with great liberality, their grants being proportioned rather to their prolific qualities than their actual present needs.

But once the improvements were made in the colony, like better provision of water, with a more extensive network of channels and extension of railways, greatly increased the pace of settlement and from 1892 to 1903, 1,813,501, acres of land was allotted. Indeed the transformation of the land was so fast and complete that soon people were generally happy, content and prosperous. Following words of the Gazzetteer tells us the effect on the public mind in general:

The following is an extract of a Punjabi ballad of 43 stanzas which was sung by a. blind-poet· known as the Kana, when Captain Popham Young was leaving the colony in 1899. The Raja referred to is Chaudhri Aurangzeb Khan, Khan BaMdur, then Assistant Colonization Officer, while Lala Pindi Das, who was then Tahsildar of Lyallpur, afterwards held the same post. The ballad gives some idea of the impression which the colony made on the native mind.

Awal sain sachche nu saran,
Ik qissa nawan aj joran,
Bar agge lut khadi choran,
Harn, gidar, chuhean dian ghoran,
Sunjan jangal koi nahei raha,
Young Sahib diya mulk wasa.


First I will praise the true Lord,
I will tell a new tale today,
How of old the Bar was the prey of thieves,
The shelter of deer, jackals and rats,
Now, no barren jungle is left,
Young Sahib has peopled the land.   
ਅਵਲ ਸਾਈਂ ਸਚੇ ਨੂਂਸਾਰਾਂ
ਇਕ ਕਿਸ੍ਸਾ ਨਵਾਂ ਜੋਣਾਂ
ਬਾਰ ਅੱਗੇ ਲੁਟ ਖਣੀ ਚੋਰਾਂ
ਹਿਰਨ ਗਿਦਣ ਚੂਹੇਆਂ ਦੀਆਂ ਘੋਰਾਂ
ਸੁੰਜਾਂ ਜੰਗਲ ਕੋਈ ਨਯੀ ਰਯਾ
ਯੰਗ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਦਯਾ ਮੁਲਕ ਵਸਾ

اول سائیں سچے نوں ساراں،   
اِک قصہ نواں جوڑاں،
بار اگے لٹ کھڑی چوراں
ہرن، گِدڑ چوہیاں دیاں گھوراں،
سونجاں جنگل کوئی نئیں ریا،
ینگ صاحب دیا ملک وسا۔



Hukam sain sachche da aya,
Anrezan nun Khuda bujhaya
Naqsha bar da lik wikhaya
Thekedaran nun bulwaya
Hoka diya sab phira
Young Sahib diya mulk wasa.


The true Lord has given his ordinance,
He put it into the heart of the English,
Who made a map of the Bar,
And summoned the contractors,
The proclamation went around,
Young Sahib has peopled the land.
ਹੁਕਮ ਸਾਈਂ ਸਚੇ ਦਾ ਆਯਾ
ਅੰਗ੍ਰੇਜ਼ਾਂ ਨੂਂ ਖ਼ੁਦਾ ਬੁਝਾਯਾ
ਨਕ਼ਸ਼ਾ ਬਾਰ ਦਾ [ਲਿਕ] ਵਿਖਾਯਾ
ਠੇਕੇਦਾਰਾਂ ਨੂਂ ਬੁਲਵਾਯਾ
[ਹੋਕਾ] ਦਿਯਾ ਸਬ ਫਿਰਾ
ਯੰਗ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਦਯਾ ਮੁਲਕ ਵਸਾ.

حکم سائیں سچے دا آیا،
انگریزاں نوں خدا بُجھایا،
نقشہ بار دا لیک وکھایا،
ٹھیکیداراں نوں بلوایا،
ہوکا دیا سب پِھرا،
ینگ صاحب دیا ملک وسا۔




Angrezan da dekho itfaq,
Ikko waida sachchi bat,
Kithe hai Wazirabad,
Khuppar jithai pawe afat
Bandh pul dakya darya
Young Sahib diya mulk wasa.


Behold the unity of the English,
Their promise is true, their word stable,
There at Wazirabad,
Where the whirpool churn
A weir has been made and the river dammed,
Young Sahib has peopled the land


ਅੰਗ੍ਰੇਜ਼ਾਂ ਦਾ ਦੇਖੋ ਇਤ੍ਫਾਕ਼,
ਏਕੋ ਵੇਦਾ ਸਚੀ ਬਾਤ,
ਕਿਥੇ ਵਜ਼ੀਰਾਬਾਦ,
[ਖੁਪਣ] ਜਿਥੇ ਪਾਵੇ ਆਫਾਤ,
ਬੰਦ ਪੁਲ ਢਕਿਆ ਦਰਯਾ,
ਯੰਗ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਦਯਾ ਮੁਲਕ ਵਸਾ.


انگریزاں دا دیکھو اتفاق،
اِکو وَیدا سچی بات،
کتھے ہے وزیرآباد،
کھُپڑ جتھے پاوے آفات،
بند پُل ڈکیا دریا،
ینگ صاحب دیا ملک وسا۔




Nal kinare rel challe,
Sair karan jinhande palle,
Tar khabran agge ghalle,
Babu an steshan malle,
Wah! Qudrat teri khuda,
Young Sahib diya mulk wasa.



Hard by runs trains,
Whereon those who pay may travel,
Telegraph lines have been extended,
Babus came and occupied the stations,
Praise to thy power, O God,
Young Sahib has peopled the land.


ਨਾਲ ਰੇਲ ਚੱਲੇ,
ਸੇਰ ਕਰਨ ਜਿਨਹਾਂ ਦੇ ਪੱਲੇ,
ਤਾਰ ਖ਼ਬਰਾਂ ਅੱਗੇ ਘੱਲੇ,
ਬਾਬੂ ਆਨ ਸਟੇਸ਼ਨ ਮੱਲੇ,
ਵਾਹ ਕੁਦਰਤ ਤੇਰੀਖ਼ੁਦਾ,
ਯੰਗ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਦਯਾ ਮੁਲਕ ਵਸਾ.

نال کنارے ریل چلے،
سیر کرن جنہاں دے پلے،
تار خبراں اگے گھلے،
بابو آن سٹیشن ملے،
واہ قدرت تیری خدا،
ینگ صاحب دیا ملک وسا۔




Zameen Angrezan kachh lai sari,
Apo-ap bheje patwari,
Zilledar kai munchi bhari,
Chuan nun diti mukhtari,
Pani dewan jide lur ha,
Young Sahib diya mulk wasa.


The English have measure the whole land,
Here a patwari, there a patwai,
Zilldars galore and mighty munshis,
To them has been given authority,
Water where they will they give,
Young Sahib has peopled the land.


ਜਮੀਨ ਅੰਗਰੇਜਾਂ ਕਛ ਲਾਈ ਸਾਰੀ,
ਆਪੋ ਆਪ ਭੇਜੇ ਪਟਵਾਰੀ,
ਜ਼ਿਲੇਦਾਰ ਕਾਈ ਮੁਨਸ਼ੀ ਭਾਰੀ,
[ਚੁਆਂ] ਨੂਂ ਦੀਤੀ ਮੁਖ਼ਤਾਰੀ,
ਪਾਣੀ ਦੇਵਨ ਜਿਦੇ ਲੋੜ ਹਾ
ਯੰਗ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਦਯਾ ਮੁਲਕ ਵਸਾ.

زمین انگریزاں کَچھ لئی ساری،
آپو آپ بھیجے پٹواری،
ضلعےدار کئی منشی بھاری،
چواں نوں دِتّی مختاری
پانی دیون جِدے لوڑ ہا،
ینگ صاحب دیا ملک وسا۔




Dekh mere Maula de chitthe,
Sikhan Jattan nun mil gai qitte,
Bukh jinhan nun gitte gitte,
Eh rajde hun akkhin dithhe,
Phiran sharab muchhan te ta,
Young Sahib diya mulk wasa.


Behold the gifts of my Lord,
To the Sikhs Jats have been given lands,
But now up to their ankles in poverty,
Lo! They prosper before mine eyes,
Drink wine and roam with curled moustache
Young Sahib has peopled the land.


ਦੇਖ ਮੇਰਾ ਮੌਲਾ ਦੇ ਚਿਠੇ,
ਸਿਖਾਂ ਜੱਟਾਂ ਨੂਂ ਮਿਲ ਗਏ ਕ਼ਿੱਤੇ,
ਪੁਖ ਜਿਨਹਾਂ ਨੂਂ ਗਿੱਟੇ ਗਿੱਟੇ,
ਇਹ ਰਜਦੇ ਅਖੀਂ ਡਿਠੇ,
ਫਿਰਨ ਸ਼ਰਾਬ ਮੁਛਾਂ ਤੇ ਤਾ,
ਯੰਗ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਦਯਾ ਮੁਲਕ ਵਸਾ.

دیکھ میرا مولا دے چٹھے،
سکھاں جٹاں نوں مل گئے قطے،
بُکھ جنہاں نوں گِٹّے گِٹّے،
ایہہ رجدے اکھیں ڈِٹھے،
پِھِرن شراب مُچھاں تے تا،
ینگ صاحب دیا ملک وسا۔





Angrez bahadur bhara bir ae,
Jin dita darya nun chirae,
Nahar kadhai siddhi tir ae,
Kadhyian te lag gae [jakhire],
Buta jhari diya hata,
Young Sahib diya mulk wasa.

Most mighty heroes are the English,
Who have now turned aside the river,
They digged a canal straight as an arrow,
And planted groves on its banks,
Brush and brushwood has been swept away,
Young Sahib has peopled the land.




ਅੰਗ੍ਰੇਜ਼ ਬਹਾਦੁਰ ਭਾਰਾ ਬੀਰ ਏ,
ਜਿਨ ਦਿਤਾ ਦਰਯਾ ਨੂਂ  ਚੀਰ ਏ,
ਨੇਹਰ ਕਢਾਈ ਸੀਧੀ ਤੀਰ ਏ,
ਕਾਧ੍ਯਾਂ ਤੇ ਲਗ ਗਏ ਜਖੀਰੇ,
ਬੂਟਾ ਝੜੀ ਦੇਯਾ ਹਟਾ,
ਯੰਗ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਦਯਾ ਮੁਲਕ ਵਸਾ.

انگریز بہادر بھارا بِیر اے،
جِن دِتا دریا نوں چیراے،
نہر کڈھائی سِدھی تیر اے،
کدھیاں تے لگ گئے جخیرے،
بوٹا جھاڑی دیا ہٹا،
ینگ صاحب دیا ملک وسا۔



Angrezan di dekho sardari,
Badshah kuchh hain wopari,
Duniyan kiti nahin piyari,
Paisa witan ikse wari,
Eh raje hain be parwah,
Young Sahib diya mulk wasa.


Behold the power of the English,
Partly rulers, partly traders,
Wealth they do not great prize,
Money they lavish with a free hand,
Princes they are who stint not,
Young Sahib has peopled the land.


ਅੰਗ੍ਰੇਜ਼ਾਂ ਦੀ ਦੇਖੋ ਸਰਦਾਰੀ,
ਬਾਦਸ਼ਾਹ ਕੁਛ ਹੈਨ ਵਪਾਰੀ,
ਦੁਨੀਆ ਕੀਤੀ ਨਹੀਂ ਪ੍ਯਾਰੀ,
ਪੈਸਾ ਵਿਟ ਇਕ ਸੇ ਵਾਰੀ,
ਏਹ ਰੱਜੇ ਹੈਨ ਬੈਪਰਵਾਹ,
ਯੰਗ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਦਯਾ ਮੁਲਕ ਵਸਾ.


انگریزاں دی دیکھو سرداری،
بادشاہ کچھ ہین وپاری،
دنیا کیتی نہیں پیاری،
پیسہ وِٹن اک سے واری،
ایہہ رجے ہین بے پرواہ،
ینگ صاحب دیا ملک وسا.




Eh angrez aulia zaroor,
Sach mano zarra na kur,
Pal wich jangal kita door,
Thekedar te tare majjur,
Hazaran di lag gayi tankhah,
Young Sahib diya mulk wasa.

The English are very saints,
Believe it true, it is no lie,
In a moment they made the waste to vanish,
Contractors and labourers became rich,
Wages were paid in thousands,
Young Sahib has peopled the land.


ਏਹ ਅੰਗ੍ਰੇਜ਼ ਅਵਲਿਆ ਜ਼ਰੂਰ,
ਸਚ ਮੰਨੋ ਜ਼ਰਾ ਨਾ ਕੂੜ,
ਪਲ ਵਿਚ ਜੰਗਲ ਕੀਤਾ ਦੂਰ,
ਠੇਕੇਦਾਰ ਤੇ ਤਾਰੇ ਮਜੂਰ,
ਹਜ਼ਾਰਾਂ ਦੀ ਲਗ ਗਈ ਤਂਖ਼ਾ,
ਯੰਗ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਦਯਾ ਮੁਲਕ ਵਸਾ.

ایہہ انگریز اولیاء ضرور،
سچ منوں ذرا نا کوڑ،
پل وچ جنگل کیتا دور،
ٹھیکیدار تے تارے مجُور،
ہزاراں دی لگ گئی تنخواہ،
ینگ صاحب دیا ملک وسا.




Eh Ali Hakam Sardar,
Jinde nal cha kare piyar,
Pal wich denda us num tar,
Sikh banae nambardar,
Guru wadhaya dora wasah,
Young Sahib diya mulk wasa.


A very mighty officer is he,
Whom he beholds with favour,
He exalts in a moment,
Sikhs had been made headmen,
The Guru has increased their credit twofold,
Young Sahib has peopled the land.


ਇਹ ਅਲੀ ਹਾਕਮ ਸ੍ਰਦਾਰ,
ਜਿੰਦੇ ਨਾਲ ਚਾ ਕਰੇ ਪਿਆਰ,
ਪਲ ਵਿਚ ਦੇਂਦਾ ਉਸ ਨਵੰ ਤਾਰ,
ਸਿਖ ਬਣਾਏ ਨਮ੍ਬ੍ਰ੍ਦਾਰ,
ਗੁਰੂ ਵਧਾਯਾ ਦੋਰਾ ਵਸਾਹ,
ਯੰਗ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਦਯਾ ਮੁਲਕ ਵਸਾ.

ایہہ علی حاکم سردار،
جِندے نال چا کرے پیار،
پل وِچ دیندا اُس نوں تار،
سکھ بنائے نمبردار،
گرو دورا دیا وساہ،
ینگ صاحب دیا ملک وسا.




Young Sahib eh Hakam thik ae,
Lailpur da naqshah lik ae,
Pahle paisa apun wit ae,
Phir khazane bhare amiq ae,
Nilam kare sarkari ja,
Young Sahib diya mulk wasa.



Young sahib is a perfect officer,
He drew the plan of Lyallpur,
First he spent money,
Then he filled the Treasury full,
Selling the land of Government,
Young Sahib has peopled the land.


ਯੰਗ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਏ ਹਾਕਮ ਠੀਕ ਏ,
ਲੈਲਪੂਰ ਦਾ ਨਕਸ਼ਹ ਲੀਕ ਏ,
ਪਹਲੇ ਪੈਸਾ ਆਪੋਂ ਵਟਾਏ,
ਫਿਰ ਖ਼ਜ਼ਨੇ ਅਮਿਕ਼ ਅ,
ਨੀਲਾਮ ਕਰੇ ਸਰਕਾਰੀ ਜਾ,
ਯੰਗ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਦਯਾ ਮੁਲਕ ਵਸਾ.

ینگ صاحب اے حاکم ٹھیک اے،
لیلپور دا نقشہ لیک اے،
پہلے پیسہ آپوں وٹائے،
پھِر خزانے بھرے عمیق اے،
نیلام کرے سرکاری جا،
ینگ صاحب دیا ملک وسا.




Lailpur da wekhya shahr,
Jithe wadhya bahut wapar,
Kanak mandi wich kothi dar,
Ik chauk de ath bazar,
Nawan dinan gol phira,
Young Sahib diya mulk wasa.

I have seen the city of Lyallpur,
Where trade has waxed greatly,
In the gram market are big merchants,
There is one chaunk with eight bazars,
The ninth was made in the form of a circle,
Young Sahib has peopled the land.


ਲੈਲਪੂਰ ਦਾ ਵੇਖਿਆ ਸ਼ੇਹਰ,
ਜਿਥੇ ਵਦਿਯਾ ਬਹੁਤ ਵਪਾਰ,
ਕਣਕ ਮੰਡੀ ਵਿਚ ਕੋਠੀਦਾਰ,
ਇਕ ਚੋਕ ਤੇ ਅਠ ਬਜ਼ਾਰ,
ਨਵਾਂ ਦਿਨਾਂ ਗੋਲ ਫਿਰਾ,
ਯੰਗ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਦਯਾ ਮੁਲਕ ਵਸਾ.


لیلپور دا ویکھیا شہر،
جِتھے ودیا بہت وپار،
کنڑک منڈی وِچ کوٹھی دار،
اِک چوک تے اٹھ بازار،
نواں دیناں گول پھِرا،
ینگ صاحب دیا ملک وسا.




Lailpur da sun tu hal,
Ann jal da jithe sokal,
Nahr wahndi darwaze nal,
Drakht lawae pal-o-pal,
Hor pae jamde sawe gha,
Young Sahib diya mulk wasa.



Hear you the tale of Lyallpur,
Where grain and water abound,
The canal runs by the gateways,
Trees have been planted in rows,
And green grass comes sprouting up,
Young Sahib has peopled the land.


ਲੈਲਪੂਰ ਦਾ ਸੁਣ ਤੂ ਹਾਲ,
ਆਂ ਜਲ ਦਾ ਜਿਥੇ ਸੋਕਲ,
ਨੇਹਰ ਵਹਂਦੀ ਦਰਵਾਜ਼ੇ ਨਾਲ,
ਦਰਖ਼ਤ ਲਵਾਏ ਪਾਲੋਪਾਲ,
ਯੰਗ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਦਯਾ ਮੁਲਕ ਵਸਾ.


لیلپوردا سُنڑ تو حال،
ان جل دا جِتھے سوکال،
نہر واہندی دروازے نال،
درخت لوائے پال و پال،
ہور پئے جمدے ساوے گھا،
ینگ صاحب دیا ملک وسا.




Young Raja, Pindi Das da piyar,
Eh hakam tinon hoshiyar,
An sohae jangal bar,
Kana karda enha pukar,
Sain inhandi umar wadha,
Young Sahib diya mulk wasa.



The young, the Raja, and Pindi Das love one another,
All three are officers of wisdom,
They have adorned the Bar,
This is the cry of Kana,
That God may increase the days of their lives,
Young Sahib has peopled the land.


ਯੰਗ, ਰਾਜਾ, ਪਿੰਡੀ ਦਾਸ ਦਾ ਪਯਾਰ,
ਏਹ ਹਾਕਮ ਤੀਨੀਂ ਹੋਸ਼ਿਆਰ,
ਆਨ ਸੋਹਾਏ ਜੰਗਲ ਬਾਰ,
ਕਾਣਾ ਕਰਦਾ ਇਹਨਾ ਪੁਕਾਰ,
ਸਾਈਞ ਇਨਹਾਂਦੀ ਉਮਰ ਵਧਾ,
ਯੰਗ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਦਯਾ ਮੁਲਕ ਵਸਾ.


ینگ، راجہ، پنڈی داس دا پیار،
ایہہ حاکم تِنوں ہوشیار،
آن سوہائے جنگل بار،
کانا کردا ایہنا پکار،
سائیں انہاندی عمر ودھا،
ینگ صاحب دیا ملک وسا.

As we already have noted that most of the land was allotted to the settlers from other districts. The following table gives the origin of the settlers:

District
Immigrants
Sialkot
103,390
Amritsar
67,973
Jullundur
56,983
Gurdaspur
43,593
Hoshiarpur
35,099
Lahore
28,620
Gujrat
25,352
Ludhiana
17,807
Shahpur
16,156
Ferozepore
15,048
Ambala
8,614
Multan
7,777
Patiala*
4,271
Jhelum
4,242
Kapurthala*
3,968
Hissar
1,834
Rawalpindi
1,736
Bahawalpur*
1,046
Total
443,509
 * Princely State.

The balance of 338,352 was mainly composed of people born in the Districts of Gujranwala, Jhang and Montgomery, which provided the following numbers:

Gujranwala
75,872
Jhang
168,090
Montgomery
91,654
Total
335,616


Population Density In The Chenab Colony
Tehsil
Population
Per Sq M.
Khanqah Dogarn
133,780
337
Lyallpur
263,561
282
Samundri
157,285
186
Chiniot
83,548
168
Toba Tek Singh
125,684
149
Jhang
28,548
142
Average For Colony
212


Religious Composition (1901)

Religion
Person
%
Muslims
484,657
  61.20
Hindus
210,459
26.58
Sikhs
88,049
11.12
Native Christians
8,617
1.1
European Christians
55
.01
Jains
23
0
Zoroastrians
1
0
Total
791,861


Religious Composition By District Of Origin & Caste (1901)

District
Muslamans
Hindus
Total

Arains
Jat
Rajput
Kamboh
Gujar
Misc.
Jat
Kamboh
Saini
Misc.

Amritsar
3,677
21,328
507
826
0
512
105,103
39,224
0
764
172,001
Gurdaspur
30,671
43,315
1,880
875
14,115
59
40,807
978
0
1,109
138,809
Sialkot
18,021
69,789
1,246
309
0
5,735
30,234
0
0
993
126,327
Hoshiarpur
48,690
34,651
2,248
608
2,590
405
15,905
0
7,936
1,389
114,422
Jullundur
38,662
8,364
194
441
298
675
50,387
7,534
1,700
1,174
104,429
Ludhiana
28,377
4,229
75
0
0
195
68,201
1,961
0
411
103,449
Ambala
8,881
4,563
10,333
0
0
57
28,537
56
3,192
56
55,675
Gujranwala
788
20,654
189
193
0
2,125
21,310
0
0
927
46,186
Lahore
9,192
4,102
480
526
0
2,849
7,463
434
0
1,688
26,734
Gujrat
222
8,759
413
0
2,393
1,986
3,293
0
0
1,250
18,316
Mianwali
0
6,286
0
0
0
6,743
0
0
0
0
13,029
Jhelum
0
159
284
304
0
3,758
0
0
0
1,048
5,553
Rawalpindi
56
112
1,338
0
0
2,347
0
0
0
1,231
5,084
Patiala
0
0
0
0
0
115
3,682
0
0
168
3,965
Shahpur
0
706
46
0
0
2,859
0
0
0
61
3,672
Ferozepur
0
56
0
0
0
81
2,316
0
0
59
2,512
Misc.
55
498
1,068
0
0
2,858
1,835
56
0
1,217
7,587
Total
187,292
227,571
20,301
4,082
19,396
33,359
379,073
50,243
12,828
13,545
947,750

Muslims Total (492,001 Acres)
Hindus Total (455,689)



Literacy Rate In Chenab Colony

Religion
Population
Literate
%

T
M
F
T
M
F
T
M
F
Muslims
484,657
272,174
212,483
4,972
4,775
197
1.02
1.08
.09
Hindus
210,459
123,518
86,941
11,180
11,023
107
5.2
8.9
.12
Sikhs
88,049
53,404
34,645
4,335
4,245
90
4.9
7.9
.25
Christians
8,672
4,747
3,925
312
233
79
8.5
4.9
2.01
Jains/Zoaroastrians
24
18
6
8
8
0
34.7
47.6
0
All
791,861
453,861
338,000
20,757
20,284
498
2.6
4.4
.14



The new settlements were known by the numbers given to each of them. These numbers were given according to the canal irrigating that area. So Chaks in the areas irrigated by Rakh Branch were named as Chak No. 1 RB, along Jhang Branch 1 JB and similarly, chaks along Gugera Branch had GB fixed with their numbers.  

Allocation of  Numbers To The Settlements
Rakh & Mian Ali Branch
1 – 299
Jhang & Bhowana Branch
1 – 504
Gugera & Burala Branch
1 – 623

Chenab colony was an agricultural project. The following table gives the prices of different commodities in the year 1903.
1 Maund
(37.3242 Kg.)
Price
( Rs. Anna. Pies)
Wheat
2  5    10
Cotton
5  4    4
Maize
1  12  3
Jowar
2  1    8
Bajra
2  5    5
Gur
4  3    9
Toria
3  15  6

A few words about the cattle:
Goats usually belong to the Bikaner, Bahawalpur and Shahpur breeds. The maximum supply of milk is about 2 seers. Goats are sheared twice a year, the average yield being from 3 to 6 chitaks. The hair (jat) is made into ropes, bags and floor cloths, and is worth from Rs. 7 to Rs. 10 a maund. The skins which are used as water bags (mashak) are sold at the rate of eight annas to a rupee each. A good many are exported to Bombay and Ka.rltohi. The price of goats varies considerably, from Rs. 4 to Rs. 10 in the case of she-goats, he-goats costing from Rs. 3 to Rs. 6. A really good she-goat may, however, be worth Rs. 15 or 16.
Despite the vast network of the canals the rapid development of the colony was not possible without a fast and reliable network of communication. The government was not oblivious to this fact and paid full attention to the extension of the railway network. The railway line was started from Wazirabad in 1895 and reached Lyallpur in 1896, covering a distance of 96 miles. In 1899 it was opened to Toba Tek Singh and linked up with Khanewal in 1900. The total cost was Rs. 7,741,000/- including the cost of rolling stock. 

Railway Section
Distance (miles)
Wazirabad To Sukhekhe
56
Wazirabad To March Belochan
63
Wazirabad To Sangla
69
Wazirabad To Salarwala
75
Wazirabad To Chiniot Road
84
Wazirabad To Lyallpur
96
Wazirabad To Abbaspur
107
Wazirabad To Pacca Anna
117
Wazirabad To Gojra
127
Wazirabad To Janiwala
136
Wazirabad To Toba Tek Singh
144
Wazirabad To Chutiana
155
Wazirabad To Shorkot Road
163

The successful agricultural schemes also provided a base for the industrial development. The abundant provision of raw material induced businessmen to invest in the industry, especially in the textile industry. That industry expanded to such an extent that today Faisalabad is called the Manchester of Pakistan.  

Name of Town
Name of Firm
Cotton
Ginning Mill
Cotton
Press
Lyallpur
Sri Guru Nanak Company
1
1
Lorinda Ram & Sewa Ram
1

Harnam Singh & Company
1

Churanji Lal & Company
1
1
The Punjab Cotton Press
1
1
Fateh Mohammad & Sultan Mohammad
1

Mohan Lal & Brij Lal
1
1
Gojra
Shankar Das & Piyare Lal
1

Harnam Singh & Company
1

Harji Mall & Company
1
1
Imam-ud-Din
1

Partap Singh & Chupa Singh
1

Toba Tek Singh
Punjab Cotton Press
1
1
Sri Kishen & Company
1

Radha Kishan & Ram Narain
1

Chiniot Road
Asmatullah & Hira Nand
1
1
Fazal Din & Muhammad Hayat
1
1
Sangla
Asmat Ullah & Kanshi Ram
1

Mangu & Fateh Din
1

Dal Chand & Brothers
1
1
Ram Ditta Mal & Prem Nath
1
1

The story of the Chenab Colony would be incoplete without the menion of the biggetst symbol of this gigantic undertaking, the Clock Tower of Lyallpur. It was consturcted in 1903-05, in memory of Queen Victoria, at the cost of Rs 40,000, which were collected by the landowners at the rate of Rs 18 per square of land. 

Wikipedia gives the following account of the resources gathered to finance this project:
The foundation of majestic Clock Tower was laid on 14 November 1903 by the British lieutenant governor of Punjab Sir Charles Riwaz and the biggest local landlord belonging to the Mian Family of Abdullahpur. The fund was collected at a rate of Rs. 18 per square of land. The fund thus raised was handed over to the Municipal Committee which undertook to complete the project.
  
The Clock Tower of Lyallpur. (Ghanta Ghar of Faisalabad). 21.07.2017.

Population Of Lyallpur City
(1901)
Religion
Population
%
Hindus
4,434
48.34
Muslims
4,232
46.15
Sikhs
365
3.98
Christians
132
1.44
Jains
7
.07
Others
1
0
Total
9,171



Gurdwara Singh Sabha, Faisalabad. (21.07.2017.)

This gurdwara in Faisalabad, tells us about a time when the society was more pluralistic and people of different communities were living and working together to make this colony a success and sharing prosperity.
http://pakgeotagging.blogspot.qa/2017/11/as-i-mentioned-in-my-previous-post.html 

This tower is a testimony to the great planning and administration of the government and the hardwork and indomitable spirit of the cultivators who turned this desolate piece of land into a most productive agricultural land in the whole India, or probably the whole world. All the four communities of India, Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs and Christians participated in its development. To me, it was a symbol of peaceful coexistence and cooperation. Unfortunately, it lasted for just a half a century and after the partition of 1947, all changed. Hundreds of thousands of Hindus and Sikhs had to leave their homes and farms and migrate to east. But this colony opened the doors of prosperity to those Muslims who were coming from the other side of the border.

Population Of Lyallpur (Census of 1941)
District
1,396,305
Muslims
877,518
62.85 %
Hindus
204,059
14.61 %
Sikhs
262,737
18.82 %
Christians
51,694
3.70 %
Tehsil
405,973
Muslims
221,333
54.52 %
Hindus
73,400
18.08 %
Sikhs
89,629
22.08 %
Christians
21,500
5.30 %
City
69,930
Muslims
23,003
32.89 %
Hindus
32,896
47.04 %
Sikhs
10,897
15.58 %
Christians
3,027
4.33 %


Here I am sharing stories of some people who inhabited this colony at some stage or are still living there.

Many historical personalities belonged to this area. One of them is Rai Ahmad Kharal of Jhamra, the only man in Punjab who rose against the British Raj with a significant power. He is buried near Sial.
http://pakgeotagging.blogspot.qa/2014/06/tomb-of-rai-ahmad-khan-kharal-grave-of.html

Love story of Heer and Ranjha is the most famous love story of South Asia. Ranjha belonged to Takht Hazara, a village in Kirana Bar (Sargodha) but Heer was a resident of Jhang. For details:

http://pakgeotagging.blogspot.qa/2014/05/tomb-of-heer-ranjha-in-jhang-takht.html

Characters of another very famous story Mirza Sahibaan also lived in this Bar. Sahibaan belonged to Kheiwa and Mirza to Danabad. For details:

http://pakgeotagging.blogspot.qa/2014/06/mirza-sahiban-graves.html

Famous freedom fighter Shaheed Bhagat Sigh was also born in this colony on 28 September, 1907, in Chak No. 

http://pakgeotagging.blogspot.qa/2014/06/birthplace-of-shaheed-bhagat-singh.html


Baba Badan Singh Ji.

Baba Badan Singh Ji was the son of Sardar Hazara Singh Dhillon, a resident of Leel, district Ludhiana. Hazara Singh ji was allotted 4 murabbas (100 acres) in Chak No. 68 JB Leelan ( ਲੀਲਾਂ لیلاں). Baba Badan Singh Ji was born in 1898, the first person of his family to born in this colony. Like all other non Muslims he had his family had to leave their home and a gurdwara, they had constructed with so much love and care.In their Chak many Muslim refugees settled. One of them was father of Rana Shoaib.  For detail see the link below:
http://pakgeotagging.blogspot.qa/2017/10/gurdwara-of-baba-badan-singh-dhillon-in.html


As I mentioned above in 1947, Hindus and Sikhs had to leave, who made about one third of the district of Lyallpur. In their place, Muslim refugee families were settled. One of such families was that of the elder brother of Chaudhry Rahmat Ali, the man who gave name to this new country. For details see the following link:
http://pakgeotagging.blogspot.qa/2017/10/choudhary-rahmat-ali-man-who-named.html

Muhammad Bashir Ahmad sahib. 

Similarly another person who settled here after the partition was Muhammad Bashir Ahmad Minhas s/o Amir Ali. He belong to village Dunga, tehsil Nakodar, district Jalandhar. I could not locate this village. He was 25 years old in 1947. They left their village on bullock carts, but as his brother and a cousin were in the navy, so they found trucks and reached Jalandhar city. From there they travelled by train and reached Lyallpur. But after finally he settled in Chak Jhumra, where he still resides.  

I learned many things about our history and culture while writing this post. I hope my readers will like it too and will give their valuable suggestion to me.

Tariq Amir

December 5, 2017.
Doha - Qatar. 

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